Chap. 1 : Unit 1: Introduction to Computers: Part 4

Introduction to Computers Part 4

प्रायमरी स्टोरेज रॅम (RAM) च्या स्वरुपात उपलब्ध असते. त्याला सी लॅंग्वेज शिकताना आपण कायम मेमरी असे संक्षिप्त स्वरुपात ओळखणार आहोत. रॅम वरील रहाणारा DATA तात्पुरता म्हणजेच टेंपररी असतॊ.

Primary storage is provided by making provision of RAM…. Here onwards In C I will be referring RAM as a memory… Data on the RAM is temporary and volatile…

When we start the computer, which is called as booting a computer…. operating system along with necessary applications is loaded onto the RAM.

Initially operating system needs to be loaded onto the RAM….

Important task of taking part of this operating system is handled by start up routines available on the ROM

Then the operating system is loaded onto the RAM

Operating system then loads device drivers which are necessary for running various devices attached to computer…

In the end, necessary applications are loaded and desktop is provided for the end user

RAM acts as a working space for running various applications available in the computer system. So while working programmer usually deals with memory. Secondary storage is permanent and available in the form of hard disk.

So when you open C compiler we work on the memory i.e. RAM and this fact should be understood by programmer.  So whenever you open C Compiler, to type the program, to run the program, operating system usually provides, a data segment and a code segment are given to the user

So whatever data you input and whatever output you get….you play only on this temporarily borrowed space….Only Exception is file handling where input and output have got connection along with secondary storage devices like disks….but it would be our last chapter….Till then we will be dealing only along with memory i.e. RAM

 

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Introduction to Computers Part 3

Chap. 1 : Unit 1: Introduction to Computers: Part 3

संगणक वापरण्यासाठी user अथवा प्रणाली लिहीण्याकरीता प्रथम संगणकाचा Block Diagram शिकला तर C language शिकतांना आपल्याला अधिक सोयीचे ठरणार आहे. म्हणुन आपण आपण संगणकाचा block diagram ची संक्षिप्त स्वरुपात माहीती करुन घेऊ. Block diagram संगणकाचा logical flow diagram असेही म्हणता येइल बर का…

For end user as well as a programmer, knowing the block diagram of the computer is very important for learning any computer programming language so here we would try to explore all components of a block diagram…..

Block diagram is also called as logical flow diagram….

What you see at extreme left is input unit, basically as I told you before keyboard, mouse, scanner, webcam, and mike are a few examples of input through which we can input to the computer.

The next one, at the center is called as processor which primarily processes the data received from the input devices and so it’s called as processing unit.

This is handled by processor called Central Processing unit or in a short CPU.

Artistically sometimes it is also called as brain of the computer!

Intel, AMD means Advanced Micro Devices are processor designer companies…..

Once the data and instructions are processed by the processor, it is sent to monitor which usually acts as an output device. It is also sent to the storage device for storing the information. Monitor is display device and just shows the information retrieved from the temporary storage i.e. RAM. Printer, speaker, projector are also various output devices…

Data from the input device, data to be processed, and information to be sent to the output device like monitor or printer, computer needs some kind of storage media for intermittent storage of data or information…

Now tell me which are the storage devices….?

Hard disk, RAM, Magnetic tape, CD, pen drive are types of storage devices.

As seen just before knowledge of storage is necessary for understanding concepts of C language which is habitually overlooked or ignored by new learner and jump directly for writing programs We will try to devote some time exclusively for storage

Storage is basically divided into 2 categories

One is Primary Storage and other is Secondary Storage

Primary is a volatile memory and so temporary in nature exception is read only memory…on the contrary… secondary storage which we just studied is permanent in nature

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Introduction to Computers Part 2

Chap. 1 : Unit 1: Introduction to Computers: Part 2

Even though…. you are well aware about computer fundamentals, this would act as a refresher module to understand further topics.

You might be aware that before we start learning language we need to know that computer system is comprised of hardware and software….

Hardware generally comprises of monitor…..keyboard….mouse…..CPU etc….whereas software is a set of programs….

Software again is broadly classified into two types……

One is System Software which is used for running a system….for example Operating system and other softwares.

The other type of software…..is application software….which is typically used by end user for day-to-day tasks…..

What you see…. on the left side of the frame on the monitor is hardware and that of on the right hand side are software….both these hardware and software are handled by primary software called Operating system….

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Introduction to Computers Part 1

Chap. 1 : Unit 1: Introduction to Computers: Part 1

Hello students…..

Today…….. We are going to start learning important and very popular computer programming language…. And i.e. C Programming language

In last 40 years, thousands of books have been written in C.

You will find millions of websites on the internet…

Because of you know its simplicity, power and flexibility; these days…it is becoming part of school curriculum also

So here it is our first attempt to unfold mysteries of this beautiful language… completely in a different way….

C is many times considered as mother of all languages in the computer programming world,

Programming languages can be learnt through books or references on internet but it may not give you confidence…So I will be concentrating on the thought process of the language designers…by focusing on basics of the language….

So to let you understand this language, I have taken help of many happenings and day to day activities around us so. So you can also apply analogy to understand the C language…..and I am sure that you will like this new approach…

Sometimes it happens know…..You prepare just for the sake of passing an examination or facing the interview or viva….but it won’t help.

Variety of thousands of applications has been written in C language. Operating systems like…. UNIX, Substantial routines in Microsoft’s Operating system like Windows 95….98…..XP have also been written in C, I heard that help of C and C++ has been taken while developing familiar application software like MS Word. A few references on the internet claim that Autodesk has used power of C for developing animation software like Maya….

You might be a BCA student, or an engineering or diploma student, or a professional one, or even a job aspirant….fundamental knowledge of computer in programming perspective is must.

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